Borobudur temple is the grandest temple as well as being the largest Buddhist temple in the world. Its exotic and charming shape once placed this temple as a Unesco world heritage site.
Borobudur temple in the Central Coral inscription was built and initiated by King Samaratungga of the House of Syailenda which then the process of completion of its construction was carried out by Queen Pramudawardhani, daughter of King Samaratungga in the 9th century AD.
The structure of Borobudur temple buildings fully uses andesite rocks derived from the eruption of Mount Merapi which amounted to 2 million andesite stones formed to resemble beams connected to each other.
The construction process even took up to hundreds of years which was carried out continuously every change of throne of the ancient mataram kingdom at that time, because the technology used at that time was still very simple including transportation tools transported to transport giant andesite rocks to the current location of Borobudur Temple.
Structure of Borobudur Temple
Borobudur temple has a stepped punden-shaped building structure whose bottom is wide and then shrinks at the top, there are four stone stairs placed in each of the four corners of the wind. And there are more than 1,400 reliefs that adorn the walls of Borobudur temple and more than 500 Buddhist archa of various shapes and sizes that have their own symbols.
Dimensions of Borobudur Temple
This temple has dimensions with a length of about 121.66 meters and a width of 121.38 meters and a height of 35 meters. With a broad cross-section of supporters who become a beauty site that continues to expand as the restoration process progresses.
Philosophy of Borobudur Temple
The shape and structure of borobudur temple building is also in the philosophy of Buddhism drawing as a form of human level divided into three levels; Kamadhatu. Rupadhatu and Arupadhatu.
Kamadhatu which became the bottom structure of Borobudur Temple is analogous to the lower realm or the lowest human nature that further accentuates worldly nature.
In the next section, or the second level there is Rupadhatu which is identical to the intermediate realm, the middle realm that tends to start thinking about switching to abandon worldly traits even though in life it is still tied to the world.
This is the end of man’s journey which has completely abandoned worldly nature to a higher level and no longer depends on things related to man’s most basic desires that tend to be negative.
Borobudur Temple Relief
On the walls of Borobudur Temple there are reliefs made in 2,672 panels that contain various stories divided into 4 special stories, namely; Karmawibangga, Lalitawistara, Jataka or Awadana and Gandawyuha.
There is also a story of the Buddha’s journey in spreading his religious teachings and other reliefs that tell how advanced the people in Java at that time.
To be able to read the storyline in the relief of this temple, visitors must walk through each relief starting from the east door then walk clockwise until meeting at the original point then continued to the next peak. By Buddhists, this ritual is called Pradaksina.
Function of Borobudur Temple
The initial function of the construction of Borobudur Temple in the Ancient Mataram era was as a place as well as a center of Buddhist worship at that time. Then after the change of time, Borobudur Temple is more functioned as a pilgrimage for Buddhists as well as a world historical heritage site that is not only the heritage of one religion but the heritage of mankind.
Borobudur temple building was damaged when Yogya was hit by an earthquake in 2006, some buildings can not even be repaired or reconstructed, the rock debris is still visible at this temple site.
The existence of Borobudur Temple with Buddhist nuances and other temples around it that tend to be Hindu also shows that at that time the community to the kingdom had greatly flattered the form of religious tolerance through a process of excellent cultural harmonization at that time with the dominance of two religions, namely Mahayana Buddhism embraced by the House of Syailendra and the Hindu religion of shiva flow embraced by the citizens and the Sanjaya Dynasty.
Eruption of Mount Merapi
Borobudur Temple building was once abandoned and left abandoned until buried in the ground after King Mpu Sendok shifted mataram’s territory to East Java this was done because of the eruption of Mount Merapi with a very wide impact until then left stranded.
Excavation of Borobudur Temple
The process of excavation of Borobudur Temple was first carried out in 1811, at that time this area was controlled by Governor General Sir Thomas Stanford Raffles who got information about the existence of Borobudur Temple and then sent Christian Cornelius to carry out the excavation process although it was still very simple. At that time, borobudur temple buildings have been buried in the ground and covered in dense trees in the forest of Bumi Segoro.
Theft of Borobudur Temple Statue
Long before the excavation was officially carried out, many Buddhist statues in Borobudur Temple were stolen, especially on the head of Buddha which was sold in international markets at a very expensive price, therefore when the restoration process was carried out many statues that did not have a head.
Borobudur Temple Bombing
Borobudur temple also received a terror bomb on January 21, 1985 which destroyed many temple buildings after restoration. There were 13 bombs placed in the stupa section of the temple and 9 of them managed to explode. This action is carried out by the culprit because it is closely related to a radical understanding of the wrong.
Amenities of Borobudur Temple
As an international heritage site, the facilities at Borobudur Temple are very complete. Facilities such as musala, toilets, canteens, to a large parking area are available in this temple complex.
In addition, there are also lodgings ranging from hotels, hostels to inns offered at various rates. Not only that, this temple area is also equipped with spots for recreation for visitors.
Entrance Rates and Visiting Hours
The entrance ticket that is applied to be able to enjoy Borobudur Temple is (IDR) 50.000 for adults and (IDR) 25.000 for children.
And, the visiting hours imposed start from 06.00 – 17.00 AM every day. It is highly recommended to visit this beauty complex in the morning because the air is still fresh and healthy.
How to Get to Borobudur Temple
Borobudur Temple is located on Badrawati Street, Borobudur Subdistrict, Magelang regency, Central Java, Indonesia. Currently, for visitors who want to go to Borobudur Temple there are many public transportation that serves even to the location of Borobudur Temple.